EU Elections 2019 – Dasymetric Style

The 2019 European elections mapped (by winner & turnout), using the 1km² population grid from Eurostat to exclude uninhabited areas.

Third attempt (after this and this) to take into consideration only populated areas, because “land doesn’t vote”.

This is the first time I mapped the 2019 turnout by the way. Curious what people make of it.

I had made another attempt in 2018 for the previous (2014) European elections. Then as now, Belgium was the highest and Slovakia the lowest.

For those wondering about the >100% turnout, most of those municipalities are in Romania, one in Spain. The highest, at 123% is Bara, in Timiș county, Romania. There were 262 registered voters and 322 voters showed up to vote.

In Romania, if you are in a different municipality than your own, you can vote on “extra lists” (i.e. not on the local voter registry). In some rural municipalities, if enough people are from out of town, it can bump up the numbers like this.

Now because we have 7+1 groups in the European Parliament, the “winner” does not always win a majority, only a plurality. The European People’s Party (EPP) Group, the “winner”, only got 21% of the vote.

Trying to distinguish between “majority wins” and “plurality wins” is worth exploring, but I’m not sure this version below is as readable as the original map. Still, a distinction worth keeping in mind when people talk about “winners” in the EU elections.

Winners – plurality vs. majority

I also decided to make a map with just the areas where an EP group won 50% or more of the vote, to highlight it.

Winners – by majority only

Why the UK is not exempt from the EU’s vaccine export ban

Visual highlight of why UK is not in the exemption list.

Who won here? EU Edition

Animated map showing which European parliament group won the European elections of 2019, with an increasing level of detail, going by: EU-level -> Member state -> NUTS1 -> NUTS2 -> NUTS3 -> Municipalities or Constituencies -> (repeat)

Inspired by Lisa Charlotte Rost’s article on the Datawrapper blog titled Different levels, different patterns.

Made with QGIS and Inkscape.

EU NUTS3 labels – Asian style

Inspired by a 1594 map of China (see further down), and East Asian style vertical labeling in general, I tried my hand at an EU map with vertical labels.

Inspired by this tweet and map (direct link):

Made with QGIS qnd Inkscape.

A new Europe with lasting Peace (A Remake)

For the 17th day of the 30 Day Map Challenge I tried my hand at a modern remake of the 1920 map “A new Europe with lasting Peace” adapted to the extent of today’s Flag of European Union European Union, with most slices preserved as in the original.

I have tried to make a version that would have been centered on Brussels but it was too eccentric so I kept Vienna as the capital.

For those unfamiliar, the original map by P.A.M. that served as an inspiration is posted below. Follow this link for a detailed description.

The flag is based on the now famous, and much hated, “barcode flag” by Dutch architecture firm OMA. Follow this link for more.

The 8-pointed star is from a 1954 proposal for a European flag by Arsène Heitz. See more proposals on Wikipedia.

CArtogram of EUROPEAN Elections in the style of Balogh Pál (1902)

I’ve been meaning to replicate the map style for over a year, ever since I discovered the 1902 ones.

For those unfamiliar with Balogh Pál’s 1902 cartograms, the two he created together with Br. Proff Kocsárd, one on Hungary’s ethnic groups, the other regarding religious affiliation, can be accessed here.

For more on Hungarian dataviz history, see Attila Bátorfy’s article in
the DataVizSociety’s “Nightingale”.

Made with 10% Excel, 60% Python, 30% Inkscape:

  1. Grid layouts done in LibreCalc (including cartogram layout).
  2. Automated .svg file based on data and grids, including cell labels.
  3. Post-production in Inkscape (legend, country labels & borders, title, map border)

Some similar cartograms, see the tweets of Alex McPhee. He took this style and really ran with it:

US Elections: who would be the EU’s favourite?

If given the chance, Europe would preferred Bernie Sanders or Elizabeth Warren. A light blogpost based on dubious data.

I took the score for each candidate in the 2020 US election from this site, mapped it on the political compass and using Voronoi partitions, I assigned a zone corresponding to each candidate (see below).

I had previously calculated the average score of each municipality based on the 2019 elections and each party’s Chapel Hill Expert Survey score.

I mentioned “dubious data” because CHES and PoliticalCompass weigh parties differently (PC is more left wing, thus their scores are skewed to the right). But for lack of better data on candidate I made a colorful map based on the data I had.

First up is the version with multiple Democratic candidates (anyone over 10% in the primary polls) plus the Republican, the Green and the Libertarian candidates:

But we could always just remove primary candidates and leave the four actual candidates who ran. Then we get a Biden vs. Hawkins (Green Party) race. Plus a Libertarian Malta.

Or go even further, just remove anyone but the two major candidates who had a chance.

Then we get an EU that is more blue than the European flag. 100% Biden! Not one village for Trump. (In reality, we’d probably get a fair few pro-Trumpy areas, I’m sure).

Anyway, this thread should not be taken seriously. The EU and the US are different beasts, with different political systems, candidate profiles and electorates.

Plus this whole exercise in map coloring is based on sketchy data to put it lightly. Just some weekend fun.

Land Cover Doesn’t VOte

Any cool or quirky US election map should ideally have a response in the form of a similar EU election map. So inspired by a Tim Wallace twitter thread (see at the end), here is a series of maps on how various land types “voted” in 2019:

Agricultural areas:

(i.e. arable land, permanent crops and other heterogeneous agricultural areas)

Pastures:

Forests (don’t always vote green):

Shrubs and Grasslands:

Wetlands:

Barrens:

(i.e. beaches, bare rocks, badlands, tundra, glaciers, perpetual snow)

And finally Built Areas, the most boring, because people actually live there. Includes roads and mines and industrial areas.

Inspired by:

All land cover data from Copernicus Land Monitoring Service.

The European VOTE on the Political Compass in 2019

Profile of each municipality or constituency according to the infamous political compass, going by the 2019 European election results.

The score is the weighted average of the Economic (“LR_Econ”) and Social (“GALTAN”)score from the 2019 Chapel Hill Expert Survey of each party that ran in a municipality, weighted by the result of said party in that municipality. This allows us to calculate how economically liberal/protectionist and socially conservative/liberal the vote was in a municipality or constituency with some degree of accuracy. From the survey:

LR_Econ = position of the party in 2019 in terms of its ideological stance on economic issues. Parties can be classified in terms of their stance on economic issues such as privatization, taxes, regulation, government spending, and the welfare state. Parties on the economic left want government to play an active role in the economy. Parties on the economic right want a reduced role for government.

GALTAN = position of the party in 2019 in terms of their views on social and cultural values. “Libertarian” or “postmaterialist” parties favor expanded personal freedoms, for example, abortion rights, divorce, and same-sex marriage. “Traditional” or “authoritarian” parties reject these ideas in favor of order, tradition, and stability, believing that the government should be a firm moral authority on social and cultural issues.

What we see is a socially liberal north-west versus a largely conservative East:

When broken down by country we see the following patterns:

  • Distribution in the West seems to be along the right-upper to left-lower axis (i.e. socially conservative and economically liberal vs. socially liberal and economically protectionist) while in the East the distribution seems to be left-upper to right-lower (socially conservative and economically protectionist vs. socially and economically liberal)
  • Belgium is cursed to be forever internally divided
  • Malta & Northern Ireland are slight outliers

Below is an animated 3D scatterplot with the same two dimensions as before for the base, plus “EU sentiment” on the Z axis.

The scatterplots (including the animation) were made in Matplotlib with some extra text and graphics added in Inkscape.