The chart above is born out of the feedback that an earlier chart received on-line. I had made a Functional Chart of the EU, in which I tried to “bring home” the political setup of the European Union, by showing where each institution gets its mandate from, and what each institution would be called if instead of being a supra-national entity it was a nation-state. To this end I emphasized that, for example, the Council of the EU (i.e. ‘of Ministers’) is actually the “Upper House” of the EU Legislature.
What sometimes happened was that the complexity of the system was highlighted as proof that the EU is “difficult to understand” for the average Joe, contrary to the straightforward way national political systems function. Another angle of criticism was using some features of national systems as a sine qua non of a democratic system. To put it differently, the argument went: “My nation does X, and is democratic. If the EU does not have X, it is therefore undemocratic”, where X is a feature that is not actually present in all European democracies.
These two lines of criticism seemed to suggest that people don’t always realize how complex national political systems are and how diverse European nations are when it comes how they have evolved as political systems. I myself have learned that Romania’s way of confirming a government by a vote of both houses of Parliament in joint session is not, in fact, that common in our Union.
But there are wonderful details that I found throughout the Single Market states:
- there is no explicit vote of confidence for the Danish PM
- the Swedish PM is nominated by the Speaker of the Parliament, not by the King
- Switzerland has a Collective Presidency
- Cyprus has no PM
- Sometimes ministers are nominated by the Head of State after consultations with the PM
- The bigger European states tend to be complicated
- Upper Houses are often very… original beats
So while the EU does have its quirks, there is plenty of diversity on the national levels as well.
On a side note, as I made the Functional Chart of the EU, I quickly became fixated with a particular type of chart one often sees on Wikipedia articles, mapping the way the electorate and the 3 powers of the state – executive, legislative and judicial – interact with each other.
There little information on-line on these types of charts. On a summary look, It seems to me that they are, in essence, a type of flowcharts, but I would welcome any further reading on the history of these types of charts.
And I also welcome any feedback in case of any mistake I might have slipped in.
Source: mainly Wikipedia. Tool: Inkscape