Tag Archives: timeline

The History of the European Council

The EU’s Collective Head of State, the European Council held its inaugural meeting on 10 March 1975. In reality, the institution has its roots in the “Summit Meetings” or “Summit Councils” that started with the Rome Summit of 1961. To this date, 182 formal Council meetings have been held (not counting Eurozone Summits, but including Informal ones).

Unlike the European elections, where the makeup of the Parliament changes every 5 years, the composition of the Council changes every time elections in a member state bring about a change in government or president. As such, the Council is in a constant state of flux, especially when it comes to its political leanings. I wanted to track this evolution visually, to get some sense of how the Council evolved.

EC_Summit_Timeline
Click for full size

But the above chart was in fact a preliminary study for a dynamic map (inspired by similar ones featuring the political affiliation of US Governors throughout history).

European Council History

Some things I’d wish to highlight:

Interestingly enough, in 1961 the Charles De Gaulle’s party was a member of the “Liberals and Allies” group in the European Parliament (it switched to the conservative “European Democratic Union” in 1965).

“Independents” are PM’s/Presidents who are not party members, while “Non-Inscrits” (“Unaffiliated”) are PM’s who are members of a party that isn’t/wasn’t member of any EP party group, or whose MEP’s sat in multiple groups, essentially denying the party as a whole a political group.

In 2009, Fianna Fail switched from the Conservatives to the Liberals in the EP, even though the Irish PM stayed the same. In such a case, the color of the country changes as well.

There seems to be a consistent shift from the christian-democrats to the liberals in the last five years.

Greens tend to be center-left usually, but the only PM from a Green party was Latvia’s Indulis Emsis whose party is rather conservative, so I chose to position it centrally on the chart.


PS. Happy Europe Day!

Chart and map made in Python. (Updated 24.06.2017)

“Cezar” ca titlu imperial

Weekendul trecut, pe 15 martie, s-au împlinit 2058 de ani de la asasinarea lui Gaius Iulius Cezar. Timp de aproape două milenii cineva undeva (de obicei un monarh) purta un titlu derivat din numele acestui om de stat roman. Nemţescul “Kaiser” sau slavonescul “Ţar” sunt ambele derivate din cognomenul “Caesar”, iar sultanul otoman de la Ţarigrad purta printre titlurile sale şi pe acela de “Kayser-i-Rûm” – Împărat al Romei – considerându-se continuator al basileilor bizantini. Ultimul “Cezar” a fost, în mod surprinzător însă tatăl reginei Elisabeta a II-a al Marii Britanii, regele George al VI-lea, ultimul “Împărat al Indiei” (până în 1948), numit în limbile hindi şi urdu “Kaiser-i-Hind”.
Caesar
Cu toate astea, titlul de “kaisar” nu a fost purtat doar de împăraţi. În perioada bizantină, acest titlu era dat unor rude apropiate ale împăratului, sau chiar unor regi străini, cum ar fi hanul Tervel al Bulgariei, sau George al II-lea al Georgiei.

Totuşi, legătura dintre imperiu şi numele lui Iulius Cezar este atât de puternică, încât în numeroase limbi europene însuşi termenul de “împărat” derivă din numele persionajului istoric, cu precădere în Europa centrală şi nordică.Emperor_map

Inspiraţie: Reddit; Sursă date: Wikipedia şi Wikţionar
Grafic realizat în Excel şi Inkscape. Hartă în Inkscape.